The Outer Worlds Explores Space While Grappling with Human Consumption

 After my panel at Momocon back in May, several audience members came up to me and asked if I had yet played The Outer Worlds. A segment of my presentation had been about Fallout: New Vegas, and my fellow gamers wanted to make sure I had played Obsidian's latest game. I hadn't, and though I had heard of the game I surprisingly didn't know that it was developed by Obsidian, or that it was such a similar game to their Fallout entries. I immediately bought the game and started playing, and I am so glad that I did! Though The Outer Worlds seems to have slipped under the radar of much of the online gaming community (perhaps because, like many a Fallout game, the game's initial release was filled with bugs and errors, though these were later fixed with a patch), it is a very fun, well-written entry into the annals of science fiction gaming that asks tough questions about morality and human consumption while endearing the player to the many characters and colonies in Halcyon. 


Image of Parvati from The Outer Worlds fixing an engine.


Like Fallout: New Vegas, The Outer Worlds is set in a future that feels oddly vintage, which draws the player's attention to the cyclical nature of history -- humanity will always be doomed to repeat its mistakes. In the case of The Outer Worlds, humanity's mistake is extreme consumption -- consumption of food, fuel, and other necessities, but also frivolities like clothes and guns. There's even a parody version of the NRA that highlights the modern American urge to own lots and lots of guns (see a short video of this parody interaction here). 


Some reviewers may have felt that the anti-capitalist overtones of the game were too overt and caused the story to drag, but personally I feel that if you want to get a message across, sometimes you have to metaphorically hit your audience over the head with it, and Obsidian does this with side-quests that you really don't have to complete if you don't want to. I promise, it's okay to skip a few side quests. Really.


My favorite part of the game, however, had nothing to do with the overstory about consumption and greed, and instead had everything to do with party member Parvati's sweet, romantic side-story. I want to say it's rare to see a story in a video game about an asexual, homoromantic major character, but that wouldn't exactly be true. The truth is that before The Outer Worlds, I had never seen an asexual, homoromantic major character in a video game. That level of realism and complexity in an LGBTQIA+ character almost never exists in fiction. The only other time I have even read a story about an ace protagonist in a relationship was when I read Claire Kann's Let's Talk About Love. Other books with such characters do exist, but these types of relationships are rarely seen in video game romances. This is no case of queer baiting, in case you were wondering. Parvati very clearly communicates her sexual identity to the player, who then even has the option of telling Parvati that they, too, are asexual. See the below screenshots for examples of conversations about sexuality that the player can have with their companion:



Screenshot text: "That's - well, it's tripped folks up in the past. Folks I thought cared about me for me. What if she's not okay with that? What if she IS, but then, later, she's not?" Player answer: "We have that in common, you know. I'm not interested in physical affection either." Screenshot text: Parvati: "You- you're not? You're like me?" Player: "Well, I'm cooler, but yeah."

Screenshot text: Parvati: "I'm not much interested in... physical stuff. Never have been. Leastways not like other folk seem to be. It's not that I can't? I just don't care for it."

Without spoiling the romantic side story that is Parvati's companion quest, I will say that Parvati and her girlfriend meeting each other, dating, and getting to know one another truly warmed my heart. This may end up being one of my favorite video game moments of all time. 


What were your favorite moments in The Outer Worlds, and which characters warmed your heart? Let me know in the comments!


Please don't forget to follow this blog on Twitter, Instagram, and/or Facebook for updates!



1

Momocon 2022 Panel Video Now Available!

 Momocon 2022 was so much fun, even if I ended up only going on Thursday. I ran my very first Video Games as Literature panel on Thursday night, which has been filmed and uploaded to YouTube! If you weren't able to make it to the live presentation, you can watch the video below. Please let me know if you have any technical problems with watching the video, and thank you for watching!



If you're interested in more multimedia on Video Games as Literature, check out this podcast episode I was invited to speak on: NEW Super Gamer Podcast 115 – Better Than Any King’s Horse with Kirsten Rodning. You can also find the Super Gamer Podcast on your favorite podcast platform.

0

Hamlet: A Video Game Genre

 Over the last decade, as I've worked on this blog and thought deeply about literary video games, I've noticed a trend: a lot of video games specifically reference or recreate the world and characters of Shakespeare's Hamlet. Something about this particular play fascinates the minds of readers, academics, and game developers more than any other Shakespearian play, and perhaps even more than any other work of literature. Below are just a few examples of games that recreate or expand upon the story of Hamlet, that brooding Danish teen and his doomed family and friends. 


Elsinore

Screenshot of Horatio saying, "Ah, the good and fair Lady Ophelia. Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?"

Elsinore is one of the most surprisingly remarkable and touching literary games I have played to date. It is a very true retelling of Hamlet, but through a time-travel element it manages to not only expand upon the original story, but also fully flesh out all of the characters Shakespeare created. For example, most people hold very little love for Polonius, Ophelia's father, when they read or watch the play. He is usually seen through Hamlet's eyes as a somewhat useless old man who no longer has a real purpose in the world. Because Elsinore is played from Ophelia's perspective, however, we get a chance to see Polonius from a different angle: as a caring father and a diligent servant of the late king. All of the play's characters receive similar treatment -- since we are not expected to experience the story in the few hours it takes to put on a play (though, yes, Hamlet is quite a long play), we as gamers get an opportunity to spend longer periods of time with each character and learn more about them as people. 

As a side note, another work of literature that I have noticed has influenced a large swath of modern games is the Legend of Zelda video game series. I admit it's very strange that I have written several posts and articles about the influence of the Zelda franchise on other games, but I have not yet written specifically about any Zelda games, though I profess that Ocarina of Time is one of my favorite games. Elsinore is no exception to this trend: the time travel elements in the game are almost definitely intentionally based on the time travel found in The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask. If you don't believe me, take a look at the character Peter Quince, himself an anachronism in the world of Hamlet. Quince is a character from Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, and seemingly has no business in Ophelia and Hamlet's story. Players soon find, however, that Peter Quince is aware of the time travelling, and of everything that is happening to Ophelia. Does that remind you of anyone? One might almost expect Quince to introduce himself to Ophelia with the line, "You've met with a terrible fate, haven't you?" I'm speaking, of course, about the Happy Mask Salesman from Majora's Mask -- the character who guides Link through his chronologically confused story.

The Happy Mask Salesman Source

Peter Quince reveals his knowledge of current events in Elsinore.

Quince's uncanny resemblance to the Happy Mask Salesman is likely intentional, and we see him wearing many different masks to represent different characters when he puts on a play, solidifying his similarities to the Mask Salesman. 

Elsinore is a lovingly crafted game that pays homage not only to Shakespeare, but to literary pop culture in general. Play this game in detail to find all kinds of surprising references -- I won't spoil them for you!



To Be or Not To Be

One game that I already reviewed back in 2015 is To Be or Not to Be, a choose your own adventure style retelling of Hamlet. To Be or Not to Be is a game based on a book based on a Shakespearian play... in other words, it's my favorite type of literature! While Elsinore takes the story of Hamlet seriously and tries to expand upon the existing world and characters, To Be or Not to Be takes Hamlet in a much more fun, and often silly, direction. Yes, you can play the game as though you are reenacting the play, and make all of the choices that would lead to the story ending as Shakespeare intended... or you can become a pirate. It's your choice! Check out the link below to browse or buy a copy of the original To Be or Not to Be book (the affiliate link will give me a small commission if you decide to make a purchase):



Final Fantasy XV

A group photo of Noctis and his bros in front of a fancy rock.


Ah, Final Fantasy XV. If you've played it, you either love it or you hate it. I personally fall into the former camp. Many who play Final Fantasy XV may not be aware that it is a direct retelling of Hamlet (or, at least, as direct as a Final Fantasy game can possibly be). Even I, who have studied Shakespeare for decades, took a frighteningly long time to realize what was going on and where the game was headed (certain death). It wasn't until I made the connection that the primary villain looks and sounds a lot like Scar from The Lion King (also a retelling of Hamlet) that I started to put the pieces together and realize that this Final Fantasy game was a direct Shakespeare retelling. When that happened, I made a blog post to share my revelation.



... And More

There are so many more games that reference Hamlet or even take the majority of their stories from Shakespeare's most beloved play that I can't possibly mention them all. Below I list a few other games I have found that draw inspiration from Shakespeare's Hamlet. Can you think of any others? Feel free to mention them in the comments!
  • Don't Starve: Hamlet
  • Hamlet or the Last Game without MMORPG Features, Shaders and Product Placement
  • Vagrant Story
  • The Lion King (Sega Genesis and SNES)
Also note that many other Final Fantasy games follow Shakespearean themes. Final Fantasy XII's Balthier behaves as though he believes himself to be a Shakespearean hero. Final Fantasy IX draws inspiration from several of Shakespeare's plays, especially Romeo and Juliet. 

ICYMI, I will be talking about Hamlet in video games and much more at Momocon on Thursday! Click here to find more information about my Momocon panel.

Follow this blog button.



0

Wyrd & Wonder 2022

 

Drawing of a wolf made of branches. Text says Wyrd & Wonder: Celebrate the Fantastic 1-31 May
Once again I will be participating in Wyrd & Wonder this month! Wyrd and Wonder is an annual blogging event where a variety of bloggers come together to discuss fantasy literature. I, of course, will be taking this theme in my own direction and will discuss not only fantasy books, but also fantasy themed video games. May will be a busy month for me, as I am also preparing to run a panel at Momocon at the end of the month, so I may not do as much for Wyrd & Wonder as I would like this year, but I will definitely be participating in the group reading of The Darkest Part of the Forest by Holly Black. I've been excited to read this particular book for a while now and I'm glad to finally have a good reason to do so! If you are interested in participating in the group read, you can click below to purchase the book through an affiliate link, which will give a small commission to the Video Games as Literature blog.





You can also follow the Wyrd and Wonder Twitter page for more information on upcoming discussion topics, events, and articles! 

Thank you to the hosts of this event, LisaJorieArianaAnnemieke, and of course Imyril! Thank you also to  chic2view for this year's logo image.


1

Announcement: Video Games as Literature Panel at Momocon 2022 in May!

Announcement! I will be running a panel on Video Games as Literature at Momocon 2022! Momocon is "an all-ages geek culture convention" taking place in Atlanta, Georgia, May 26-29th, 2022. Keep reading for more information on my panel, entitled "Video Games as Literature 101," and on Momocon in general!

Momocon in Atlanta logo

Momocon is one of the largest fan conventions in Georgia (and possibly in the entire southeast?). You can read more about Momocon here. Fun fact: I attended the very first Momocon back in 2005 and have been going almost every year since! This is the first time I'll be running my own panel.

Video Games as Literature 101 will be happening on Thursday evening at 8:30pm. (That's Thursday May 26th) in Panel Room 208. See the full Momocon schedule here, and don't forget to download the Momocon app if you're going! Trust me, it will be extremely helpful. The panel will include discussion of Shadow of the Colossus, Final Fantasy (multiple series entries), and more! Feel free to come with questions and thoughts about any literary games you want to discuss.

I am also planning to stream the panel on Instagram Live for accessibility purposes for anyone who is unable to attend in person due to disability/illness or any other reason. Don't forget to follow Video Games as Literature on Instagram to see the live recording. Keep in mind that it will be taking place Thursday, May 26 at 8:30 pm Eastern Time.

Speaking of disability, please remember that masks are required at Momocon. I am still high risk, so I am only safe at Momocon as long as everyone follows the masking protocols! Thank you for keeping me alive to blog another day.

Let me know in the comments if you have any questions! I can't wait to see you at Momocon!


0

Don Quixote and Gaming Disorder

 "Gaming disorder" is a relatively recent diagnostic invention by psychologists who believe that too much gaming is evidence of a mental illness. According to the World Health Organization, 


Gaming disorder is defined in the 11th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) as a pattern of gaming behavior (“digital-gaming” or “video-gaming”) characterized by impaired control over gaming, increasing priority given to gaming over other activities to the extent that gaming takes precedence over other interests and daily activities, and continuation or escalation of gaming despite the occurrence of negative consequences. (Source)

 

As an introvert who naturally abhors social interactions, I was immediately skeptical of this newly invented diagnosis, and as an academic who spends a lot of time researching societal impressions of disability, I feared that this diagnosis would be yet another method doctors could potentially use to discriminate against their marginalized patients (which is surprisingly common). I also immediately thought of Don Quixote, a beloved character from the early 17th century who, like many modern gamers, faced discrimination and scorn from his peers simply for enjoying less popular forms of literature.


Original Don Quixote Illustration by Gustave Dore

The History and Adventures of the Renowned Don Quixote was first published by Miguel de Cervantes in 1605. If you're like me and can't easily do mental math with big numbers, this was 417 years ago, the same year that William Shakespeare wrote King Lear, Macbeth, and Antony and Cleopatra (source). Yet, even though over four hundred years have passed, Don Quixote's story is remarkably similar to current events and social beliefs, including the idea that video games are a far lesser, cruder media than "high" literature and film. There is no diagnosis that labels readers of books or watchers of film and television as mentally ill, but if you prefer to spend your time playing video games you may be at risk of receiving a mental illness diagnosis (please keep in mind that I do not believe that there is anything wrong with being mentally ill. I do believe that false diagnoses can divert resources from people who really need them, and will muddy the waters when activists are trying so hard to destigmatize mental illness). (This article copyright 2022 Kirsten Rodning.)


In Don Quixote's case, video games wouldn't be invented for a few hundred years, but he was labeled mentally ill by his peers simply for reading the wrong genre of books. Even Cervantes, the author who invented Don Quixote, seems to look down on his protagonist for this reason, writing, 


Be it known, therefore, that this said honest gentleman at his leisure hours, which engrossed the greatest part of the year, addicted himself to the reading of books of chivalry, which he perused with such rapture and application, that he not only forgot the pleasures of the chace, but also utterly neglected the management of his estate." (Cervantes 44)

 

Very early in this large saga, Don Quixote's "friends" decide they are fed up with his literary preferences, and march to his house to burn his books while he is asleep:


[H]is friends came, and demanded of his niece the key of the closet in which those books, the authors of his misfortune, were kept, and she delivering it with great cheerfulness, they went into it in a body, house-keeper and all, and found upwards of an hundred volumes, great and small, extremely well bound [. . .] "There is not one of them, replied the niece, which deserves the least mercy, for they are all full of mischief and deceit. You had better, therefore, throw them out of the window into the court-yard, and there set fire to them." (Cervantes 75)


Don Quixote shows us that society always has, and always will view some forms of media as being more worthy than others. Nowadays the books that Don Quixote loved so much and was hated for are actually considered to be stuffy old classics. So if your friends and relatives look down at you for playing video games, feel free to tell them that you are a modern day Don Quixote, and that one day those games may very well be considered stuffy classics, too.


For more reading on Don Quixote, check out my thesis The Horse and the Heroic Quest linked here.


Works Cited:

“Addictive Behaviours: Gaming Disorder.” World Health Organization, World Health Organization, 22 Oct. 2020, https://www.who.int/news-room/questions-and-answers/item/addictive-behaviours-gaming-disorder. 


Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel. The History and Adventures of the Renowned Don Quixote. Translated by T. Smollett, Modern Library, 2001. 



0